In security and fire systems, “Zones” or “Loops” are the path that is monitored by the system. Each system uses input devices like motion sensors, smoke alarms and door contacts with resistors to monitor the zone.
Resistance is measured in Ohms. Manufacturers have a specific resistance (Ohm) value that their system is looking for.
Loss of that specific resistance value on a Zone is why a security or fire system goes into alarm. We call these “supervised” zones or loops.